Head and neck cancer refers to a group of malignancies that develop in the oral cavity, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), nasal cavity, and sinuses, among other structures in the head and neck region. These cancers typically arise from the squamous cells lining the mucosal surfaces in these areas, and they can be classified into various subtypes based on their location and specific characteristics. The most common risk factors for head and neck cancer include tobacco and alcohol use, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and exposure to certain environmental carcinogens.
The treatment of head and neck cancer typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies depending on the tumor's location, stage, and the patient's overall health. The choice of treatment can have significant implications for a patient's ability to eat, speak, and maintain their quality of life. Advances in medical technology and surgical techniques have improved the outcomes and reduced the side effects associated with treatment.
Head and neck cancers are usually caused by squamous cells lining the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck (such as the mouth, throat, and voice).